Sequels in Malayalam Cinema | Twice is rarely Nice

Sequels in Malayalam Films

Achanurangatha Veedu is soon going to have a sequel. And so is Avalude Ravukal, New Delhi, Samrajyam and Runway. It seems that the sequel mania which hit its zenith following the success of Harihar Nagar Part 3, is still raging in Malayalam cinema.

Mythology, Books and Hollywood

Sequels have always been popular since time immemorial, right since ancient mythology. Isn’t Uttara Ramayanam a sequel to Ramayanam? And isn’t there an interesting connection between the Ramayana and Mahabharata through the character of Hanuman? One also shouldn’t also forget the first prequel- Raghuvamsham by Kalidasa- which tells the stories of the forefathers of Lord Rama. Coming to modern literature – Milton’s Paradise Lost was followed by Paradise Regained. Louisa May Alcott’s Little Women was followed by Little Men while Mark Twain’s Tom Sawyer was followed by Huckleberry Finn. Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice was recently followed by a sequel that had all elements of a detective novel – Death Comes to Pemberly (by P.D.James). Anna Sewell’s Black Beauty had its sequel in Son of Black Beauty (by Phyllis Briggs); while Victor Hugo’s Les Miserables had its sequel in Cosette (by Laura Kalpakian). Margaret Mitchell’s Gone with the Wind was followed by Scarlett (by Alexandra Ripley) while D.H. Lawrence’s Lady Chatterley’s Lover had sequels by Samuel Roth (Lady Chatterley’s Husbands) and by Elaine Feinstein (Lady Chatterley’s Confession). In more recent times Catch-22 had its sequel in Closing Time (both written by Joseph Heller himself); Jeffrey Archer’s Kane and Abel had its sequel in the Prodigal Daughter, Ken Follett’s Pillars of the Earth was followed by The World Without End and Sidney Sheldon’s Master of the Game was followed by Mistress of the Game. The unauthorised sequel to JD Salinger’s Catcher in the Rye titled 60 Years Later: Coming Through the Rye by JD California was recently caught in a legal imbroglio which frankly made the otherwise non-consequent book into a bestseller.

In movies – I think the first sequel was The Fall of a Nation (1916) the sequel to The Birth of a Nation (1915). Numerous sequels have happened since then in Hollywood right from the Son of the Sheikh to the most recent Men in Black III. But more often than not, sequels happened to be duds ruining the fame of the original- the only notable exception being Godfather –II which, to me, even surpassed the original.

Sequels in Malayalam Literature and Theater

Coming to Malayalam literature – the first sequel, I believe was CV Raman Pillai’s Dharmaraja (the sequel to CV’s Marthandavarma which was followed by Rama Raja Bahadur). Recent notable sequels include Sunil Parameswaran’s Bhadrasanam (sequel to Ananthabhadram and soon to become a movie) and Thoppil Soman’s drama Eenum Ente Thambranum (sequel to his father Thoppil Bhasi’s Ningalenne Communistakki).

Sequels in Malayalam Films

Sathyan as Kayankulam Kochunni (1966)
Sathyan in & as Kayankulam Kochunni (1966)

Malayalam cinema had also its share of sequels. If my memory is correct the first such proclaimed sequel was the Prem Nazir movie Kayamkulam Kochunniyude Makan (1976), sequel to Sathyan’s Kayamkulam Kochunni (1966). That said, the 1979 movie Aane Valarthiya Vanambadiyude Makan had its original first part some 20 years back in the movie Aane Valarathiye Vanmbadi (1959). Thacholi Othenan had its unofficial sequel in Othenenta Makan. The makers never touted the movie as a sequel- but everyone accepted it as one; though the official sequel was made only in the late Eighties as Kadathanadan Ambadi. For that matter we can also trace some sort of connection in all our “Vadakkan Pattukal” movies including Unniyarcha, Aromalunni and Thacholi Marumakan Chanthu.

But the sequel mania really hit Malayalam cinema from the Eighties. Aavanaazhi and Inspector Balaram (and then the forgettable Balaram versus Tharadas); Mimics Parade and Kasargod Khadarbhai (and followed twenty years later with Again Kasargod Khadarbhai) Ramjirao Speaking and Mannar Mathai Speaking, Devasuram and Ravanaprabhu etc. were some of the popular movies during the last decade of the 20th century. The movie Puthran was a sequel to the television serial Mikhayalinte Santhathikal– the first time in Malayalam cinema in which a movie sequel was based on a television drama. And now the hit movie Akashadoothu has its sequel in an eponymous television serial. The last five years witnessed the success of the two sequels to In Harihar Nagar and the curious success of Padmasree Dr. Saroj Kumar – the sequel to Udayananu Tharam. Some sequels have become a sort of franchise- the best example being Mammootty’s Sethurama Iyer (in CBI Diary Kurippu, Jagratha, Sethruramaiyeer CBI, Nerariyan CBI and soon to be followed by Black Investigators) and more recently the character of Perumal (August 1 and August 15)

What prompts a sequel ?

Be it in movies or literature, is it lack of creativity or over-creativity? Is it the desire to make a quick buck rehashing the old formula or genuine belief that there yet remains a story to be told? Is it obsession with a story/ character or a last-ditch attempt to reclaim past glory? Having unsuccessfully tried to promote a sequel (a vain attempt to write a sequel to Thoovalsparasham, but sob…sob… it didn’t go anywhere); I tried to find out the psychology behind why people- especially in Mollywood go gaga over sequels. Frankly, I felt the element of a natural continuation only in Kireedom and Chenkol. Senior Mandrake was a desperate attempt to cash on to the mild popularity of its predecessor Junior Mandrake. The movie Thirakalkkappuram– the sequel to Chemmeen was an utter disaster- though the movie had the blessings of Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai the doyen litterateur himself.

Aanju Thuzhanju from Thirakalkkappuram ( 1998 )

The King and Commissioner ruined the good name of its originals The Commissioner and The King. And frankly, I don’t know why the filmmakers made an attempt to circumvent an otherwise independent story into the fold of a sequel in movies like Arikkari Ammu (un-official sequel to Kalli Chellamma); Veendum Liza, Uppukandam Brothers Back in Action, Ninnishtam Ennishtam Part II, Kilukkam Kilukilukkam and Veendum Kannur.

How to massacre a much-loved melody.

The element of a ‘forced’ sequel was felt throughout in these movies. I guess obsession with a character or story might prompt a sequel in literature but so far as cinema is concerned, the main concerns are making a quick buck and a desperate attempt to cash on to past glory.

And it is with interest I view the forthcoming project Pavanai 99.99 with Captain Raju playing the titular role of a character he is most identified with. Is it obsession with that character or something else that prompts him to make this movie ?

Capt. Raju as Pavnai in Nadodikattu ( 1987 )

Malayalam movies, I guess, also has the glory of sequels that were announced but that did not happen. The List includes announced sequels to Yodha, Lelam, Nokkatha doorathu Kannumnattu (return of Dolly); Thenkassipattanam, Thommanum Makkalum, Lion, Rajamanikkam, Meleparambil Aanveedu (titled Meleparambil Unnikal), CID Moosa, Chocolate (about a girl in an all boys’ college), Malappuram Haji Mahanaya Joji (though Rajan Kiriyath is still optimist of the movie taking place) Gajakesari Yogam and so on. It seems that P.G. Viswambharan, was working on a sequel to his movie Ponnu when he passed away. And subject to correction, I remember reading somewhere that the movie Flash was a rehashed version of the script originally meant for the sequel to Manichitrathazhu.

Pulari ponpraavey from Flash ( 2007 )

To Continue or Not to Continue.

That said, sequels will continue happening. Kolilakkam Part-2 (32 years after the demise of Jayan), Mathilukalkkapuuram (sequel to Adoor Gopalakrishnan’s Mathilukal), the sequel to Sandesham, the fourth installment in the Harihar Nagar series and the 3rd installment in Ramji Rao series are being planned. And however we berate the sequels – the element of curiosity would force us to go to the cinema and watch the movie. And I am no exception !

But the sequel which I truly wish to see is Dasanum Vijayanum – the 4th installment of Nadodikattu which has been in the news for quite some time now.

Dasanum Vijayanaum against the world – Nadodikkaattu ( 1987 )

What are your thoughts on Sequels in Malayalam films ?

25 thoughts on “Sequels in Malayalam Cinema | Twice is rarely Nice

  1. I was creating an imdb list of all malayalam movie sequels.. I put all that came to my memory. Then while searching the net, I came across this page.. Very nice!!! I have liberally taken information from here and put into my list… Thank you Narayan and all other commentators…
    You can see the list that I have compiled here.. Take a wild guess as how many movies will be present in the list, before you visit the page.. 20..? 30..? 50..? 60..? 70..? 80..? 100..?

    1. my pleasure…and thank you for reminding me of AKKARA KAZHCHAKAL. didnt know that a movie of the same name had been released.

  2. Dear Narayanan

    Thanks for posting a very relevant topic. A well articulated write up. The idea of sequels was quite common and in fact successful among Hollywood films. The crazy boys, Dracula sequels, The Omen, Mummy, Bud Spenser Terence Hill Movies etc are a few i could recollect rapidly. However, i cant say that the sequels to Jaws was successful.

    But such a successful sequel is very rare in the case of Malayalam. One film i remember to be included in this genre is Tenaruvi. This film of Udaya was released, i think after Ponnapuram Kotta. This film is a continuation of Kattutulasi. The film starts with the song Naalumozhi Kuravayumaai Naadoodi Paattumaai Nanam Kunungi Varum Tenaruvi…. The hero in the film Tenaruvi (Premnazir) is the Nephew of the hero in Kattutulassi (Sathyan). Anyway, i cant remember just one hit sequel movie in malayalam that surpassed in value than the original film till the 70s.But the success of Pattanapravesham and other films in the 80s was quite different


    1. Thanks Sajith Sir for the valuable comments. Its for the first time, I am hearign about Tenaruvi and Kattu thulasi.
      Crazy Boys series were a pet favorite of mine as a kid. I have with me the dvd of CRAZY BOYS OF THE GAMES and CRAZY BOYS IN SPAIN. Though I remember seeing Crzy Boys versus Dracula Junjor, Crazy Boys at the Supermarket etc- imdb lists only Games and IN Spain as the English released movies. I have also felt that the antics of the Harihar Nagar foursome owes their inspiration to Crazy Boys. Bud Spencer- Terrence Hill- Italian dubbed movies were also popular in the early Eighties- my favorite being WHO FINDS A FRIEND FINDS A TREASURE. However, i feel that Crazy Boys and Bud Spencer movies were a sort of franchise- they were not direct sequels. (the exception being Trinity series featuring Terrence Hill). The same can be said about abbott and costello movies, laurel n’ hardy, marx bros, three stooges, the canon & Ball movies, jerry lewis- dean martin comedies and gene wilder- richard pyror comedies etc.. they were not sequels, but comedies of the same genre- capitalizing on the chemistry between the duo.
      Omen was a fabulous movie- and I liked Omen II and I could accept Omen III. But Omen IV was a total waste and the remeake of the Omen (released on 06/06/2006) was an utter failure. I have with me the 5 books in the Omen series. Books 1 to 3 are faithful adaptations of the movies. . Book No. IV has no relation with the Omen IV.
      I have with me the books and dvds of the Jaws series. I agree part 2 and 3 are boring.

      1. Dear Narayanan
        The date of release of remade Omen and the number 666 in the chapter 13 revelation really coincided. That was a great piece of information. Thanks


    2. prem nazir was the young brother of sathyan in THENARUVI.. sathyan’s photo was placed on the wall and near that photo nazir and friends dancing and singing after drinking alcohol.. also many scenes of kaattuthulasi including some songs and THULASI’s death were shown again in THENARUVI.

  3. good attempt narayanjeee…. let us leave those originals alone… sequels may not repeat success.. as your title suggests… a small correction is needed in your article… AANAVALARTHIYA VANAMBADIYUDE MAKAN released in 1971 (and not in 1979 you mentioned) with anandan and gemini ganesan as heroes.. film was an utter failure..after watching it for an hour, i got bored and but i completed watching it only bcoz it is an old movie.. its 1st part was released in 1980 AANA VALARTHIYA VANAMBADI both films from p subrahmaniam…

    mohanlal has dismissed any possibilities of sequels like RAJAVINTE MAKAN, NADODYKATTU, etc.. he is not interested in such sequels. sethuramaiyyer 5th part is under pipe line and it will reach theatre during 2013.. no chaces for LELAM 2nd as suresh gopi is not interested in film field nowadays.. johny antony is planning for CID MOOSA 2nd part.. but after the big flop of his latest THAAPPANA.. what will he do!! is a big question..

    CID nazir had tasted success in his second outing in TAXI CAR.. hats off to venu sir for that.. but his 3rd attempt PRETHANGALUDE THAAZHVAARA left theatre immediately after releasing. (though nazir was not in it it was the 3rd part of his cid series.) later in 1975 venu sir approached nazir with a full script CID NAZIR at COCHIN but that film didnt complete and they did PICHATHI KUTTAPPAN instead.

    1. AANA VALARTHIYA VANAMBADY released in 1960… ( not in 1980 it was typing mistake) sorry for that…

    2. Gopalji, thanks for the correction- guess that changes the whole concept of which was the first sequel in Malayalam. It would be Aaaneye valarthiya vanambadiyude makan and not kayamkulam kochunniyude makan as I wrote. thank you for putting the history in the right perspective. I never knew that Nazeer had appeared as CID Nazeer in other movies as well. Could you as our resident CID through more light on the 2nd and 3rd outings of Prem Nazir as CID Nazir. And guess Cochin Express and Kannur Deluxe can be put in the same league though the names of the characters Shri. nazeer portrayed in both movies are different.
      An Gopalji waiting with baited breath for your magnum opus tribute to the legendary Sathyan Master.

      1. Dear Gopalji,

        Could you please recheck on the year of release of Aana Valarthiya Vaanambadiyude Makan as somehow, it just doesn’t feel right. By the late 70’s, Neela/Merryland productions had dwindled down to a trickle and it just didn’t make sense for him to release a production of that genre in that time. Also there is an article from Malayalam Manorama which lists the release as 1971 and also this. Could you please reconfirm for my sake ? :)..Thanks so much..cinematters

        1. IT WAS TYPING MISTAKE CM.. and i made correction immediately.. AANA VALARTHIYA VANAMBADY released in 1960 and its sequel in 1971. 1st movie was a hit where as sequel bombed at box office.. CID nazir had its sequel in TAXI CAR and almost in PRETHANGALUDE THAAZHVARA (but nazir could nt able to do that film and ragavan (strangely it was ragavan who died in 1st part and nazir came to investigate his death) did the cid role.. CID ANAND (if my memory is correct) opening scene of PAATHIRAPAATTU, PRETHANGALUDE THAAZHVARA and NISAGANDHI were same.. white color saree female ghost singing song while hero is driving a car and suddenly ghost appearing before the hero.. IT WAS THE SAME SCENE THAT THESE MALAYALI DIRECTORS LIFTED from FAMOUS WOH KAUN THI!!! starring manoj kumar – sadhna 1964..

          and my sathyan article will publish in OMC during onam… it is my most ambitious article..

  4. Most times the sequel does not meet the expectations of the original, and therefore disappoints. I have to confess that I used to look forward to Mohanlal-Sreenivasan movies as they have a brilliant rapport and comedic timing.
    Thanks for the article, Narayanji. Lots of interesting info.

    1. Was it obsession, the lure of making an easy buck or something else which prompted me to write a sequel to THOOVALSPARSHAM……frankly I don’t know. I wrote it inspired by the success of 2 Harihar Nagar…and simply wanted to join the bandwagon….and because I had a lot of spare time. Sure, I dreamt of the same being made into a movie, sure I dreamt of the money it might make- but I think it was mainly an obsession with what happened to Kingini that prompted me to go ahead.
      Two other films that still haunts me and for which I thought of writing a sequel are THOOVANATHUMBIKAL and INNALE. . I have often dreamt about what happened to Clara. She is THE best female protagonist ever portrayed in Malayalam cinema…enigmatic, alluring, mysterious to the core. What happened to her. Another movie is INNALE. What would happen if Gauri/ Maya (Shobhana) regains her memory twenty years down the lane. What she first has is a series of irregular dreams when the past comes to haunt her. She is now married with kids…but slowly is falling into the trap of her own past memories. She along with Sarath (Jayaram) goes in search of Dr. Narendran (Suresh Gopi). How will he tackle the situation. Will family and kids stall Gauri from admitting to Sarath that she loves Narendran and will she continue with a façade. The ending I had in mind has Narendran denouncing her and commenting that she is deranged…and Sarath and Gauri returning- but Gauri realising that Narendran loves her to such an extent that he was willing to let her go. But whenever I seek to explore this story- I am haunted by the omnipresence of the legend. If this were any other story, I would have had the guts to take it ahead- but when it is one by Padmarajan….the sheer force of his genius in him desist me from taking any step further. I had even written to Vaasanthi on whose novel “Punarjananam”, Innale was based- to write a sequel on these lines. I simply cannot do it..simply because it is Padmarajan.
      I also wish for a 4th innings for Dasan and Vijayan. Last April 1st- I had sent out a prank letter to my friends (including many esteemed members of OMC) that the 4th part was in due. I got many replies which were mildly put un-parliamentary, and I even got a “Howler” from Rajeshji. Here is the plot I devised- Dasan and Vijayan are now seniors in the department-and in the limelight of their careers. Save for the past glory, nothing has happened to them over the past twenty years, and often they become the subject of ridicule from new hotshots in the department who use brain and brawn to tackle criminals. Dasan and Vijayan need one good case- one last hurrah before they can retire holding their heads high. So do they get a case- or will they create a case- is the plot of the story. Eventually they get a case, a murder that has occurred in Dasan and Vijayan’s hometown. When they reach Kerala, they are astounded to see that Ananthan Nambiar has re-established himself in Kerala from Chennai. Dasan and Vijayan try to emulate the success of spy legends of the silver screen. The movie would have extended cameos for Mammootty as Sethuramaiyer; for Jayaram as CID Unnikrishnan, Dileep as CID Moosa and Saif Ali Khan as Agent Vinod. I envisage the 4th outing as a sort of humorous but befitting homage to the detective –CID movies in Malayalam cinema.

      I would also like to know- suppose, if a very poor sequel is made to a hit movie- like Manichitrathazhu or Meesha madhavan- would any of you feel that you have to go watch it in the theater, will there be an element of curiosity or would you take a stand that I don’t want to watch it- and ruin my memories of the original..

      1. I too have wondered what would have happened if Maya regained her memory. the ending of innale still haunts me. i simply could not accept it. as for thoovaanathumbikal… i shall not even go into it now. while we all wonder about the what might have been, i think some things need to be left alone. the ‘what if’ to be an eternally tantalizing mystery. knowing what happened to them might spoil it all.
        you spoke about the sequel to gone with the wind. ripley’s scarlett was a book i awaited with bated breath. what a let down:( the spunky towering scarlett was reduced to a simpering mills and boon type of heroine. such a shame.
        there was a prequel to another famous book too. ‘wide sargasso sea’ which tells the story of bertha mason, the first wife of rochesyer in jane eyre. that was a pretty goo dbook actually.
        like you said, godfather is one sequel that matched or outdid the original. and not to forget the harry potter series. the latter movies were miles ahead of the first two. not a patch on the books of course!

        1. Remitha, I have with me the complete collection of the Mario Puzo books- one of which has not been in print since the early Seventies (titled RUNAWAY SUMMER OF DAVIE SHAW). I was captivated by the brooding charm of Godfather…and I have with me a copy of a book called Godfather II- – it is a fake title, attributed to Mario Puzo-… a book Puzo never wrote!!!!
          I too agree SCARLETT was a big let down- Though I wanted to see the movie with Timothy “James Bond” Dalton stepping into the shoes of Clark Gable- better sense prevailed and I desisted from watching the sequel.
          And since you speak of Jane Eyre guess you have already heard about LITTLE MEN the sequel to LITTLE WOMEN; and THREE MEN IN A BOAT and THREE MEN IN A BUMMELL- sequels that have attained the status of classics. Mark Twain’s Tom Sawyer has actually 3 sequels- Huckleberry Finn, Tom Sawyer Abroad and Tom Sawyer Detective. cheerio and thanks for the comments

  5. thank you all for the valuable comments. thoovalsparsham 2 is still remaining where it started…on paper.
    I shouldnt have left out Sarasayya- unpardonable. Meeshamadhavan, Pubjabi House, Mookkillarajyathu, Anthony Punnakkkdan IPS (pseudo sequel to Twenty Twenty with Suresh Gopi coming as Anthony Punnakkadan, Paramadhikaram (the pseudo-sequel to Narasimham with the guest role of Mammootty’s Advocate Nandagopala Marar being developed into a full character), are some of the titles I left out in the list of sequels that did not happen. Rajeshji- thanks for the comments about Ramji rao- i believe a write up on unoffical remakes (copyadi) in Malayalam cinema would run close to fifty pages.
    Another sequel i left out was Irupatham Noottandu and Sagar Alias Jackie. Major Mahadevna movies have now become a franchise and tat too ought to have been given mention. my mistake. keep on writing,

  6. Narayanan,.. thanks for the informative write up..very well done. so far most of the sequels have been disasters…the actors who played those characters 20 yrs back are not in shape to do those characters again except maybe Nadia Moidu who is still in her old form…what happened to your Thoovalsparsham – 2??

  7. Good list Narayanji
    Kilukkam kilukillukam also featured Gaffoorka from Dasan Vijayan trilogy.

    One I remember from Tamil is Kalyanaraman and Japannil Kalyanaraman starring Kamal Hassan and Sridevi
    Mother India had a forgettable Son Of India again by Mehboob Khan which flopped. Of the many sequels that are coming out of bollywood, Sholay had the famous RGV one, also had Ramgarh ki Sholay featuring dupes of many stars. There was another movie called Surma Bopali based on the character portrayed by Jagdeep in Sholay.

    Another interesting one is Ramji Rao Speaking which is believed to be a copy of ‘See The Man Run’. Priyan remade it as Hera Pheri. Ramji Rao’s sequel Mannar Mathai (which is Hitchcocks Vertigo carefully wrapped with humour) was remade again by Priyan as Bhagam Bhag this time as a separate movie and not as a sequel. I haven’t seen this but i feel think the character Ananthan Nambiar from Dasan Vijayan was used in the movie.
    Hera Pheri got a sequel later, (not by Priyan) and this was a copy of Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels

    Recently Lal Jose said in an interview that producers, Dileep and Kavya were behind him for Meesa Madhavan sequel but he wasnt ready for it

    1. @Rajesh,
      Rajesh’s mention of the role of Mamukoya’s Gafoorkka being “abducted into” KILUKKAM KILUKILUKKAM reminds me other such rehashing of the same character/ or comedy elements. Mamukoya himself does a minor Gafoor ka dost attempt (this time in Hindi) while teaching Hindi to Kunchakko Boban in MALLU SINGH. Earlier Kuthiravattom Pappu had given two different versionS of the Thamaraserry Churam comedy in VELLANAKALUDE NAADU and TP BALAGOPLAN M.A.
      other such duplication of the same comic situations include:
      1. the friendship between the rich landlord and the poor vagabond- shown with KP Ummer and Pratap Pothern in PAPPU and followed a couple of years later with Mohanlal and Poojappura Ravi in NINNISHTAM ENNISHTAM (lets forget for a moment that this scene itself owes its inspiration to Charlie Chaplin’s CITYLIGHTS).
      2. the professing of the love for the game of cricket- while trying to impress the interviewer as seen with Jagadeesh in KUNIKITTA KOZHI and with Mukesh in CHEPPU KILUKKANA CHANGATHI.
      3. What happens if you sleep in an AC room with windows open? You will freeze to death- the same dialogue which Jagathi uttered in THIRUTHALVADI is repeated verbatim in Suresh Gopi’s HAILASSA.

      1. Yet to see Mallu singh. Didnt know about thamarasseri churam being used in TP Balagopalan.
        Indrans used ‘Oru Murai Vanthu Pathaya’ as a comedy scene in many movies. I think there were at least 3-4 with same situation. Unfortunately cant recollect the names
        On a related note, what about character names (not the character itself) that are used in multiple movies. One i noted recently was the name Chakkachamparambil Joy which is Sreenivasans character name in Friends. Same name is used for one minor character in the movie Superman, i think some associate of Innocent. Of course I am not talking about common names here
        What is Suresh Gopis Hailasa? 🙂 never heard.

  8. Hi CM
    I am not very fond of this sequel or remake mania. Like what you said, have only enjoyed Godfather. Another movie worth mentioning in Malayalam is Ashwamedham(1967) and Sarassayya(1971). I felt both were equally good and well made. Thanks for all the info from hollywood and English Literature. Have saved all of them. 🙂
    Thanks CM for such a wonderful article.


      1. I am so sorry Narayanji, in my greed to absorb the content, did not care to see who the author was. I am extremely sorry. That was one of the finest articles on sequels and prequels that I have read. 🙂 Thanks CM for pointing out my ignorance. Shall be more careful in future.

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